Joshua entered Sunday’s gala event as a 1/10 favourite to take the top gong after becoming a two-belt world heavyweight champion in 2017.
However, the 28-year-old finished fourth in the public vote behind para-athlete Jonnie Peacock, motorbike champion Jonathan Rea and runner Mo Farah, who won for the first time after five unsuccessful nominations.
“I didn’t even come top three! That’s not good enough, I want to win it. My viewership is completely different — I’m on Sky,” Joshua said.
The former super-heavyweight Olympic gold medallist has become one of boxing’s most valuable assets since turning professional four years ago.
Joshua, who is promoted by Eddie Hearn’s Matchroom Boxing, fights on Sky Sports Box Office and made around £10million from his last fight, a win over Carlos Takam.
And while missing out on SPOTY was a disappointment, the heavyweight insists extending his 20-0 record is higher on his agenda.
“I don’t do what I do to win Sports Personality. But if I win it one day, that’ll be good,” Joshua added.
“You have to pull yourself back from wanting to win these things and focus on boxing because I’m an athlete and winning my fights is more important than anything.”
Joshua has yet to announce his next fight but wants to unite the heavyweight division in 2018.
That would mean beating WBC champion Deontay Wilder and WBO king Joseph Parker, both of whom are unbeaten.
And the latter is currently in talks with Joshua with Hearn claiming the announcement of the fight is imminent.
“It’s not a done deal but I’m very confident it will be next,” Hearn said.
“We are looking at Cardiff’s Principality Stadium and have had conversations with Twickenham so we remain pretty confident.”